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News scientifiche del Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia di Bologna
Un super-ammasso di stelle sorpreso sul nascere nell’Universo lontano
Un gruppo di ricercatori in collaborazione con l’Università degli Studi di Bologna, ha scoperto la nascita di un super-ammasso di stelle, situato nel disco di una galassia a redshift z=2. Questo enorme complesso stellare ha un’età minore di 10 milioni di anni.
Premio Gratton assegnato a un dottore di ricerca UNIBO
Premio Gratton: Antonino Marasco La commissione internazionale del premio Gratton ha deciso di assegnare il premio al nostro dottore di ricerca in Astronomia Antonino Marasco, autore della tesi "The gaseous halo of the Milky Way".
Premio P. Tacchini vinto da Silvia Posacki
SAI La dr.ssa Silvia Posacki e' vincitrice del premio nazionale P. Tacchini, X edizione per la miglior tesi del XXVII ciclo di argomento astrofisico svoltasi presso Universita' italiane.
Network entropy
RSC Multiscale characterization of ageing and cancer progression by a novel Network Entropy measure.
Thermal corpuscular black holes
Casadio Quantum black holes are represented as Bose-Einstein condensates. The qualitatively new result is that back reaction effects eventually stop the quantum process of black hole evaporation.
Horizon Wave-Function and the Quantum Cosmic Censorship
Casadio Some cosmological notions are extended to the realm of black hole physics by means of the horizon wave function formalism, developed by the authors. The essence of this formalism is that basic black hole physics notions, like the event horizon radius, acquire a quantum probabilistic character.
A simple all-PEDOT:PSS electrochemical transistor for ascorbic acid sensing
Gualandi Over the past decade, the development of organic electronics has led to the fabrication of new devices that find application in many fields of science and technology
Resonant X-ray scattering probes electron transfer in TiO2 nanoparticles
Boscherini Amidani Advances in experimental methods based on synchrotron radiation make it possible to obtain new insights on the structure and properties of nanostructured materials.
Optical Properties of Nanoporous Germanium Thin Films
Cavalcoli Fraboni In the present article we report enhanced light absorption, tunable size-dependent blue shift, and efficient electron–hole pairs generation in Ge nanoporous films (np-Ge) grown on Si.
Physical and Electrochemical Properties of PEDOT:PSS as a Tool for Controlling Cell Growth
PEDOT:PSS In this work, researchers of the DIFA report on the results they have obtained on thin films of PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly-(styrenesulfonate)).
Nanocrystal Formation in Silicon Oxy-Nitride Films for Photovoltaic Applications: Optical and Electrical Properties
JPCC2015 In the present contribution we investigated the properties of one Si based oxides (SiOxNy) which has recently attracted a lot of attention in different and innovative applications, like CO2 capture, waveguides for nanosensors, and as conductive oxide.
Charge Density Increase in Sub-Monolayer Organic Field-Effect Transistors
Cramer The researchers found that even in the so-called sub-monolayer regime charge transport happens along a percolation path.
Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval Art
Ordine della stella Going ahead in their long-term project of analysis of the role of transient astronomical events (comets, novae, supernovae, close conjunctions, etc.) as inspirational sources of Medieval art, the authors extend their interest towards the 13th and 14th centuries, epochs of strong changes either in society, art or science.
GEMINI/GeMS observations unveil the structure of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1
Gemini By exploiting the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope, our group investigated the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge.
A very active group
A very active group Multiple AGN in the crowded field of the compact group SDSSJ0959+1259
The birth cry of a massive star-forming clump in the distant Universe
Clamp Discovery of a giant region of star formation 3 billion years after Big Bang
Opere della biblioteca “Guido Horn D’Arturo” disponibili in rete
Torre Specola e via Zamboni AMS Historica è una delle collezioni di AlmaDL e ospita le digitalizzazioni di opere antiche e di pregio conservate presso le biblioteche e gli archivi dell'Università.
Premio Musto 2015 per la Fisica Teorica a Michele Cicoli
Il conferimento del premio motivato dalla ampia produzione su varie tematiche tutte di grande interesse e, in particolare, dai risultati ottenuti nell’ambito della cosiddetta “Fenomemologia di Stringa”.
City breathability in medium density urban-like geometries evaluated through the pollutant transport rate and the net escape velocity
City breathability Pollutant removal in urban canopy models (UCL) models of medium building density is studied. Pollutant transport rate (PTR) and net escape velocity (NEV) are used as ventilation indicators. NEV is smaller in UCLs with longer streets due to pollutant accumulation effect. Parallel wind and wall heating get bigger NEV than oblique wind and isothermal case. Building height variations enhance pollutant removal across street roofs.
The rise of low-cost sensing for managing air pollution in cities
Sensori a basso costo Impacts on the health of city dwellers due to high air pollution exposure are unknown; Conventional sparse monitoring stations are unable to identify pollution hotspots; Low-cost micro-scale sensing allows capturing real-time high-grained pollution data; Fundamental drivers behind the rise of low-cost sensing and challenges are discussed.
Gains and losses of coral skeletal porosity changes with ocean acidification acclimation
Coral porosity The measurements by NMR methods of porosity and the measurements by nanoindentation on the skeleton of corals grown along a natural sea acidity gradient suggest the acclimation of the coral determining both “gains” and “losses”
Iterative approach to self-adapting and altitude-dependent regularization for atmospheric profile retrievals
MR1 A practical approach is proposed to apply a regularization constraint to concentration profiles of atmospheric constituents obtained from the ill-conditioned inversion of spectroscopic measurements. The strength of the constraint is self-adapting and height-dependent
Non-thermal dark matter in supersymmetric models with a 125 GeV Higgs
Neutralino We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric theories where a non-thermally produced neutralino can play the role of dark matter. Focusing on models which give a correct Higgs mass around 125 GeV, no dark matter overproduction and satisfay all existing exparimental bounds from colliders, cosmic microwave background data, direct and indirect dark matter searches, we find that the neutralino has to be Higgsino-like with a mass around 300 GeV
Measurement of the Gravity-Field Curvature by Atom Interferometry
Gravity-Field The second derivative of the gravitational field generated by a test mass of the order of 500kg has been measured for the first time using an atomic interferometer
Towards Low-Voltage and Bendable X-ray Direct Detectors Based on Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals
XrayFlex Organic materials have been so far mainly proposed as detectors for ionizing radiation in the indirect conversion approach, i.e. as scintillators. Here is reported the first thin and bendable X-ray direct detectorsbased on Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs).
Search for neutrino emission in coincidence with the gravitational wave event detected by the LIGO observatories
GW On September 14th, 2015, a gravitational wave was recorded by the LIGO detectors. A search for high-energy neutrino emission in coincidence with this event was performed, using the data recorded by the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. No neutrino was found, establishing the first experimental limit to the joint production of neutrinos from a gravitational wave source
Local structure of V dopants in TiO2 nanoparticles for photocatalysis
VTiO2 Doping with transition metals enhances light absorption in TiO2 nanoparticles improving photocatalytic efficiency. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy we demonstrate that V occupies substitutional sites in the TiO2 structure, irrespective of whether it is similar to rutile, anatase or mixed.
Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals
OSSCs Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles. The good peak discrimination allow to estimate the µτ value, and to perform Time-of-Flight experiments on such kind of organic materials.
Low-temperature technique of very thin silicon ion implanted epitaxial detectors
Silicon detectors A new technique of large-area thin ion implanted silicon detectors has been developed by the FAZIA Collaboration. Preliminary results of these detectors used as a first stage in a ΔE − E telescope are very encouraging, allowing charge identification in the range Z = 2–25, at low energy thresholds.
New type of Hill top inflation
Plantime A new model of cosmological inflation is proposed. It is based on the idea that an initial quantum state of the Universe is not pure but mixed and is described by a micorocanonical density matrix. The model predicts reasonable value of some observable quantities.
A new test of CPT invariance with light nuclei
CPT A new result has been obtained by the ALICE Collaboration at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) on the equality of a fundamental property of nuclear matter and anti-matter, the mass. It has been experimentally confirmed on light nuclei to a precision improving the previous limits by factors between 10 and 100.
10th Conference of the Italian LCA Network: Life Cycle Thinking, Sustainability and Circular Economy
Grafico LCA The aim of the conference is to present the role of Life Cycle Thinking in moving society towards sustainability.
ANTARES and IceCube joint search opens a new dimension in Neutrino Astronomy
IceCube A combined analysis for the search for cosmic neutrino point-sources over the whole Southern Sky has been performed by the two complementary neutrino telescope. Although no excess has been observed, it has been shown that the combination of both data samples improves the sensitivity for point-sources up to a factor two.
New limits on neutrinoless double beta decay
Neutrinoless The measurements performed in the first year on a tower of the CUORE experiment, in the INFN Laboratories of Gran Sasso, made it possible to reduce the upper limit on the probability of the 130Te decay with production of two electrons and the absence of neutrinos.
Measurements on top-antitop production at ATLAS
ttATLAS New measurements of the differential cross-section of top-quark pair production using data collected by ATLAS experiment have been published recently on two papers. The results of these analyses will be used to improve the modeling of the system and as new constraints in the determination of parton distribution functions.
Relative frequencies of seismic main shocks after strong shocks in Italy
Probabilities We estimate the probability that strong seismic shocks, widely felt by the population but not dangerous in itself (4.0≤Mw<5.0), are followed by main shocks (Mw≥5.0) potentially able to threat the health and the properties of the persons living in the epicentral area
A stochastic model of randomly accelerated walkers for human mobility
Tempi Recent studies of human mobility associate displacements patterns to scale-free superdiffusive random walks (Lévy flights). We show, on the basis of a data set describing the trajectories of 780,000 private vehicles in Italy, that the Lévy flight model cannot explain the behaviour of travel times and speeds.
Direct X-ray photoconversion in flexible organic thin film devices operated below 1V
Abstract TIPS Xrays2 Innovative materials for X-rays detection are needed to overcome the stiffness and growth complexity in large-area of traditional ones. Here is reported the first highly sensitive thin, flexible organic direct X-ray detector, operated below 1V. We also propose a model describing the X-rays signal observed.
The cosmological lithium problem: a hint from n_TOF
n_TOF A puzzling discrepancy between the observed primordial lithium abundance in the universe and its theoretical prediction, known as the cosmological lithium problem, is about to be reduced, thanks to new measurements. At the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, the key reaction cross-sections have been measured for the first time.
Sea-Level Change in the Northern Mediterranean Sea from Long-Period Tide Gauge Time Series
Sea-level The analysis of centennial (from the last decades of the 19th century till 2012) tide gauge time series in the Northern Mediterranean shows consistent long-period linear trends of sea-level rise ranging between +1,2 and +1,3 mm/yr with associated errors varying from 0,2 to 0,5 mm/yr.
Nanostructured Surfaces Investigated by Quantitative Morphological Studies
Nanostructured The Authors investigated and quantitatively analyzed at the nano-scale the morphology of different surfaces by atomic force microscopy. A detailed knowledge of surface morphology is mandatory for a complete study on the performances of devices, such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes.
Gas-phase synthesis of Mg-Ti nanoparticles for solid-state hydrogen storage
Mg-Ti Understanding and tuning hydrogen – materials interaction at the nanoscale is a crucial step in the development of hydrogen storage and sensor systems. Here we report on a novel nanomaterials with remarkable hydrogen sorption kinetics.
Electrically Controlled “Sponge Effect” of PEDOT:PSS Governs Membrane Potential and Cellular Growth
Sponge Effect We found that the redox state of PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly-(styrenesulfonate)) is able to influence the electrophysiological properties of the plasma membrane through a “sponge-like” effect on ions, with effects on cell adhesion and proliferation.
Ocean warming and acidification synergistically increase coral mortality
Synergy An experiment performed at CO2 vents in the Mediterranean Sea shows, for the first time in the field, the synergistic adverse effect of seawater warming and acidification on coral mortality. An acidified and warmer ocean will likely reduce the environmental and socioeconomic benefits of ecosystems reliant on calcifying organisms.
Direct imaging of defect formation in strained organic flexible electronics by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy
Kelvin Probe The development of flexible electronics depends crucially on the understanding of how strain affects electronic material properties at the nano-scale. A group of DIFA researchers develops a Scanning Probe Microscopy technique to investigate the formation electronic defects during strain.
Textile Organic Electrochemical Transistors as a Platform for Wearable Biosensors
OECT The development of wearable biosensors is receiving a great deal of attention in view of noninvasive and continuous monitoring of physiological parameters (physical, chemical and biological) in healthcare applications. This paper describes the development of a fully textile, wearable biosensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) entirely made of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS).
Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure
quality matters figure The authors analyze 20 years of publications on the effect of electromagnetic radiofrequency fields (mobile phones and wi-fi): quantifying the goodness of the experiments by 5 indices, the positive results observed show an inverse association with the quality of the experimental protocol applied.
Identification of a T cell gene expression clock obtained by exploiting a MZ twin design
Tcell clock The authors identify a multivariate signature able to estimate human chronological age from the expression profile of 125 genes, combining Data Analysis tools and a unique experimental design involving monozygotic twins of ages ranging whole adult lifespan.
Shedding a new light on the growth of cosmic magnetic fields
B5 Two new numerical works explored how magnetic fields observed in the largest cosmic structures might have originated.
Inauguration of Cuore: the cold giant detector that studies neutrinos
CUORE-bottom_towers On October 23 2017 the CUORE experiment (Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events) has been inaugurated at the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics Gran Sasso National Laboratories in Italy. CUORE is one of the most promising efforts to determine whether neutrinos are “Majorana particles” – identical to their own antiparticles. CUORE could also help us home in on the masses hierarchy of the three types, or “flavors,” of neutrinos. Physics results, based on two months of data taking, recently submitted to the journal Physical Review Letters, set the most precise limits yet on where scientists might find a theorized process, known as neutrinoless double beta decay.
Assessment of the possible contribution of space ties on-board GNSS satellites to the terrestrial reference frame
TD The progress of Earth-System Studies and the reliability of services for civil applications critically depend on the quality of the underlying Terrestrial Reference Frame. For the first time, the authors critically evaluated the performance of an innovative approach for the computation of the frame.
UniBO wins the national phase of the International Physicists Tournament
IPT The UniBO team wins the national selection of the prestigious International Physicists Tournament and is heading for the international finals in Moscow
All-flavor Search for a Diffuse Flux of Cosmic Neutrinos with Nine Years of ANTARES Data
plot diff Results of the search for an all-flavor diffuse neutrino signal with 9-years of the ANTARES neutrino telescope data,obtained by two young UniBO and INFN-BO researchers, Luigi Fusco and Federico Versari, highlighted on the web page of the AAS journals.
The central engine of FR0 radio galaxies unveiled by X-rays
Xradio corr X-ray observations allowed for the first time the characterization of the high-energy properties of FR0 radio galaxies
Deep inside Perseus A–A telescope larger than the Earth makes a sharp image of the formation of black hole jets in the core of a radio galaxy
Deep Perseus A An international team of researchers from eight different countries has imaged newly forming jets of plasma from a massive black hole with unprecedented accuracy. Radio images made with a combination of telescopes in space (RadioAstron) and on the ground resolve the jet structure merely a couple of hundred black hole radii or 12 light days from its launching site.
Dynamics of direct X-ray detection processes in high-Z Bi2O3 nanoparticles-loaded PFO polymer-based diodes
radiation Direct X-ray radiation detectors based on the semiconducting polymer poly(9,9-dioctyfluorene) blended with Bi2O3 nanoparticles, have been realized, combining mechanical flexibility and large-area processing with a high X-ray stopping power and sensitivity.
Space environment effects on flexible, low-voltage organic thin film transistors
Space environment effects Organic electronic devices fabricated on flexible substrates are promising candidates for applications in space environments. The effect of high-energy protons on TIPS-pentacene based OTFTs has been investigated, monitoring device parameters such as threshold voltage, charge mobility and trap density.
Charge carrier dynamics and visible light photocatalysis in V-doped TiO2 nanoparticles
Nanoparticle charge Time-resolved pump-probe optical spectroscopy was applied to elucidate the charge carrier dynamics that underlie the photocatalytic activity of vanadium-doped TiO2 NPs, addressing the role of dopants in extending photocatalytic activity in a visible spectral range where pure TiO2 is inactive.
Self-Bound Quantum Droplets of Atomic Mixtures in Free Space
Droplets Self-bound quantum droplets are a newly discovered phase in the context of ultracold atoms. Here we report their experimental realization with a mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates.
Phase Transitions in Zn Gauge Models: Towards Quantum Simulations of the Schwinger-Weyl QED
ercolessi We study 1+1-QED by implementing the Schwinger model on a lattice via a Zn approximation. By performing a numerical analysis, we show that all Zn models exhibit a phase transition which falls in the Ising universality class, with spontaneous symmetry breaking of the CP symmetry.
Emergence of a dark force in corpuscular gravity
casadio A unified description is proposed for the quantum state of the gravitational field of the Universe is proposed which accounts for dark energy and dark matter.
Pauli–Zeldovich cancellation of the vacuum energy divergences, auxiliary fields and supersymmetry
vacuu We have considered the Pauli-Zeldovich mechanism for the cancellation of the ultraviolet divergences in vacuum energy. This mechanism arises because bosons and fermions give contributions of the opposite signs.
Scientific principles and public policy
gmtaRCP Climatology and Seismology have important societal implications, but modelers have not made clear what is known, and what isn’t. Public policies on climate change and earthquake hazard mitigation necessarily require the search for consensus, but scientific integrity must be preserved first of all.
Tracing the Universe: new data from the XXL survey support the standard cosmological model
xlssc The ESA’s XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has been busy with the XXL survey, its largest observational programme to date. The second batch of data has just been released, including information on 365 galaxy clusters. The data provided a new strong confirmation of the standard cosmological scenario.
Kick-off of the iTHEPHY project at DIFA
iTHEPHY_b On October 30th, 2018, participants of the European iTHEPHY project, coordinated by DIFA, met in video conference to launch the most important phase of the project, the tandem-projects. For five months, international teams of students will collaborate to realize an educational project using innovative teaching tools developed on purpose for them.
First observation of the Higgs boson decaying to b-quarks
VHbb_b Great success for the ATLAS experiment: the favored decay of the Higgs boson in a pair of b quarks observed for the first time. The observation of this decay mode and the measurement of its decay rate are mandatory steps to understand the mechanism that gives rise to the mass of particles.
Fibre Bragg Gratings to monitor the deformations of a silicon microstrip vertex detector
FigureFBG The purpose of this research is to investigate whether Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) technology is suitable to measure the deformations of a silicon microstrip detector module. For the first time, the study of the deformations was carried out using bare FBG sensors glued onto the detector itself.
Hibernation for space travel: impact on radioprotection
Hibernation The idea of exploiting hibernation for radioprotection in space exploration is becoming realistic, thanks to the introduction of specific methods to induce hibernation-like conditions (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating animals
1.58 Million seconds of XMM-Newton time to the SUBWAYS project
SUBWAYS ESA’s XMM-Newton telescope will observe for about 18 days a sample of 20 quasars to shed light on the launching mechanisms of ultrafast outflows observed at accretion disc scales around the central supermassive black hole. The project is led by Dr. Marcella Brusa, and this is the first time a project of such size is awarded to an Italian woman.
First measurement of LambdaC-baryon production in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC
baryonLHC The first measurement of LambdaC-baryon production in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC was presented recently by the ALICE Collaboration. The LambdaC/D0 ratio, which is sensitive to the charm quark hadronisation mechanisms in the medium, is found to be larger than the ratio measured in pp and p-Pb collisions.
Statistical modelling of CG interdistance across multiple organisms
StatisticalModellingCG Authors analyzed CG dinucleotide distribution inside 4425 DNA gene sequences, identifying a statistical model that allows to highlight relevant features related to organism complexity.
Boosting direct X-ray detection in organic thin films by small molecules tailoring
Confronto fra TIPS- e TIPGe-pentacene In this paper it is reported how, by synthesizing new solution-processable organic molecules with Ge-substitution in place of the Si atoms, have been boosted the X-ray direct detection response of organic thin films on flexible plastic substrates.
Quantum Surfaces: polaron quasiparticles interact with CO
Interazione tra ossido di carbonio e polaroni nella nel processo di assorbimento di CO sulla superficie (110) del TiO2. The Computational Quantum Materials group (Prof. C. Franchini) in collaboration with the experimental surface science group at TU Wien has found that quantum effects play a decisive role in the adsorption of molecules on oxide surfaces. Results published in "Physical Review Letters" (Editor’s choice).
Phase shift in atom interferometers: Corrections for nonquadratic potentials and finite-duration laser pulses
traj-3 Atom interferometry is made more accurate by removing commonly employed approximations. A detailed model that includes the effect of a small arbitrary gravitational potential and the duration of laser pulses is introduced, leading to interferometers with improved sensitivity.
BK channel overexpression on plasma membrane of fibroblasts from Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome
BK1 In the skin cells of patients affected by Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome (a rare genetic disorder characterized by a clinical state of premature aging) we measured, via patch clamp and immunofluorescence imaging techniques, an increase in the number of BK ion channels, while the proliferative capacity decreased with a characteristic phenotype of senescence.
Discovery of CP violation in charm decays
CharmCPV The LHCb collaboration set an important milestone in the history of particle physics: CP violation was observed for the first time in the decay of particles containing a charm quark. This represents a further step towards the understanding of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe
A radio ridge connecting two galaxy clusters in a filament of the cosmic web
ridge For the first time ever, a stream of magnetic fields and relativistic electrons along a filament that connects two clusters of galaxies has been identified thanks to observations performed with the LOFAR radio telescope.


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    Linee guida per la redazione degli highlights scientifici per il sito web del DIFA (ultimo aggiornamento: 17 giugno 2019)